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210                                      FLORA   INDICA,
Pteris aquilma, together'with Eremw^us in great abundance.
Of other Kunawar plants are Ephedra, Dictamnus, Rosa pirn-
pineltefolia, Dianthus, and Scutellaria orientalis. Pinw Gerar-
diana is very common, with large walnut and other fruit-
trees ; and the forest vegetation resembles that of Kashmir,
with the addition of Quercys Hex and Ptnus Gerardiaua.
Of eastern forms, which do not, so far as we ar$ aware, ad-
vance westward into Kashmir, there are Clematis connata and
Trottws acanlis. And of Kashmir and other western forms,
not hitherto collected to the eastward, there areó
Anemone Falconeri.                        Eprmedium elatum.
GeraiK>cephalus/0&?0tf#£                  Corydalis adiantifolia.
11. KASHMIR.
The valley of this name consists of the upper part of the
basin of the Jelam; and frorh its comparatively great width,
level floor, abundant population^ and cultivation, and from
its containing by far the broadest sheets of water known any-
where within the--Himalaya, it has been regarded rather as a
separate country, different from the Himalaya proper, than as
an integral part of that mountain mass, and one of the many
series of valleys that it encloses. This erroneous impression
has been much diffused from the circumstance of map-makers
isolating it by a well-defined oval girdle of mountains, cut off
almost entirely from the rest of the Himalaya, but which
has no such independent existence. It would be out of place
here to dwell upon the geological causes that have filled the
Kashmir valley with deposits to the depth of many hundred
feet, and which have given rise to its flat surface and its lakes,
and which, if present in any of the western valleys, would
render that of Kashmir less conspicuous.
Kashmir is bounded to the north by the axis of the Hima-
laya, which there presents a remarkable depression occupied
by the Zoji Pass, elevated only 11,300 feet, and communicating
with the Tibetan valley of Dras. To the south, the Pir-Panjal